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This paper constructs a housing affordability index for China, which covers 37 major cities, to capture the change in affordability from 2010 to 2019. The index suggests China’s housing affordability improved from 2010 to 2014, reached the maximum around 2015 and has kept decreasing since that. Additionally, by applying instrument variable (IV) estimates, this paper also analyses the impact of housing affordability on total fertility rate and suggests that a 10 per cent increase in affordable housing areas leads to a 4.56 per cent increase in total fertility rate. In order words, the more affordable the housing, the higher the total fertility rate.